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Abstract Schizophrenia is associated with motivational deficits that interfere with a wide range of goal directed activities. Despite their clinical importance, our current understanding of these motivational impairments is limited.
Furthermore, different types of motivational problems are commonly seen among individuals within the broad diagnosis of schizophrenia. The goal of the current study was to Behavioural explanations of schizophrenia whether clinically meaningful subgroups could be identified based on approach and avoidance motivational tendencies.
We measured these tendencies in individuals with schizophrenia. Our findings indicate there are distinct motivational pathways that can lead to asociality in schizophrenia and highlight the value of considering profiles based on combined patterns of BIS and BAS in schizophrenia.
Introduction Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in initiating and persisting in a wide range of goal directed activities in the social, vocational, and independent living realms Blanchard et al. Although it is believed that these difficulties stem largely from disturbances in motivation, our understanding of motivational impairments in schizophrenia is limited.
In addition, it is well known that schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder and the causes of problems in motivation can differ across individuals. For example, some patients show a profound disinterest in social interactions in the apparent absence of loneliness or other negative emotions, while others are interested in social connections but avoid engaging in social activities because of fear of rejection, social anxiety, or concerns about the harmful intentions of others Horan and Blanchard, ; Horan et al.
Building on affective science models of motivation, we attempted to identify valid subgroups of schizophrenia patients with different motivational profiles. Across several prominent models of motivation, a basic distinction is made between behavioral approach and behavioral avoidance Gable and Gosnell, ; Gray, ; Spielberg et al.
These systems are thought to be relatively independent and to rely on distinct neurobiological substrates Coan and Allen, ; Peterson et al.
However, extreme scores on either scale are associated with various forms of psychopathology. For example, depression is frequently associated with diminished BAS, mania is associated with elevated BAS, and certain anxiety disorders are associated with elevated BIS Bijttebier et al.
According to the joint subsystems hypothesis Corr, the BIS and BAS are conceptualized as interdependent systems and behavioral outcomes are predicted to depend on the strengths of the BIS and BAS systems in relation to each other. Consistent with this hypothesis, initial studies in clinical populations also suggest maladaptive behaviors, such as anxiety and impulsivity, may be better explained with categorical profiles in which BIS or BAS overpowers the other system Corr, ; Nash et al.
Compared to healthy controls, individuals with schizophrenia report higher BIS sensitivity and no difference in BAS sensitivity Barch et al.
Examining BIS and BAS as joint systems within a large schizophrenia sample may help identify sub-groups with distinctive motivational impairments. For example, recent studies suggest that a categorical approach to motivation-related variables, such as negative symptoms, may show greater validity and clinical utility than a continuous approach Deserno et al.
The goal of the current study was to examine whether clinically meaningful subgroups of people with schizophrenia could be identified based on BIS and BAS sensitivities.
The validity of motivation-based subgroups was evaluated with respect to clinical symptoms, socio-emotional attitudes, and functional outcomes. We were particularly interested in whether two separable motivation profiles could be distinguished: The sample had an average of All participants were receiving antipsychotic medications at clinically determined dosages.
Procedure Participants were recruited at four sites as part of a larger study designed to validate a new negative symptom instrument Kring et al. Interviewers were credentialed for all clinical rating scales with videotaped and in-person co-rated interviews. To facilitate interpretation, all measures are scaled so that higher scores indicate more severe impairment.
The SAS includes three subscales that measure distinct aspects of disturbances in social affiliation: Friends not valued measures lack of interest in social connections and diminished effort to initiate and sustain relationships e. Aloofness, in contrast, measures the extent to which one finds social interactions aversive and actively avoids them e.
The third subscale, Preference for solitude, measures a general preference for activities that do not involve other people e. A standardized summary score 0 — 50; based on percent correct in each domain was computed. To reduce multiple comparisons we combined Work and Independent Living into a single variable and Family Network and Social Network into a single variable mean of subscale scores based on prior studies e.
Data analysis Prior to identifying subgroups, we searched for outliers in the bi-dimensional space of the variables BIS-Total and BAS-Total using Malahanobis distance since cluster analysis can produce small splinter groups if there are extreme observations. Two outliers were identified, but they were not sufficiently extreme to affect the final results so we left them in the analyses.
We used a combination of i visual inspection of the dendogram and scatterplots, which show the relative tightness and separation of the resulting clusters, and ii clinical interpretability and distinctness of the groups to identify an optimal number of clusters.
We initially examined the BIS and BAS as separate dimensions and calculated their correlations with external variables.
Cluster analysis Visual inspection of the dendogram indicated the 5-cluster solution was optimal as that was the point of diminishing returns for improving cluster tightness total error sum of squares by including additional groups 1and examination of the scatterplots of the various solutions indicated the 5-cluster solution provided the best separation Figure 1.
Furthermore, the corresponding cluster centroids, which give the average BIS-BAS profile for the group members, were clinically distinct and meaningful.The goal is not to “cure” schizophrenia, but rather to improve the person’s ability to function independently, manage their schizophrenia, and to reduce the distress they experience in their daily life.
Baker, A; Yusupoff, L.; and Ugarteburu, I. A trial of two cognitive-behavioural methods of treating drug-resistant residual psychotic. Behavioural Explanation & Schizophrenia watch.
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This forum is supported by: charco; Mr. Behavioural Explanations Of Schizophrenia. Unit 4 Schizophrenia: Behavioural explanations Schizophrenia: Behavioural explanations (part of the psychological explanations) Any behavioural explanation of schizophrenia has to incorporate fundamentals of conditioning (classical and operant) and/or social learning theory.
Is it possible to make sense of the many and varied symptoms of this . Schizophrenia: Explanations and Treatments. BIOLOGICAL APPROACH.
Genetics. Heston () Aim: Investigated the role of genetics in schizophrenia. BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH. Explains schizophrenia as a learned response; People will behave in a schizophrenic way if they reinforced by it, develops by operant conditioning.
Explanations of Schizophrenia No single cause has been identified, biological, behavioural and social research suggests a complex interplay between factors.
For example, people might have an inherited tendency towards schizophrenia that is triggered by environmental circumstances. Jan 03, · There are two explanations which can be placed under the umbrella term of ‘psychological explanations’, the psychodynamic and cognitive approaches.
The psychodynamic explanation Freud believed that schizophrenia is caused .