United States[ edit ] There are many institutions in the United States that claim to be the oldest gay bar in that country. Since Prohibition ended inthere are a number of places open and continuously operating since that date: The Atlantic House in Provincetown, Massachusetts was constructed in and was a tavern and stagecoach stop before becoming a de facto gay bar after artists and actors, including Tennessee Williams began spending summers in Provincetown in the s.
Structuralism and Semiotics Structuralism Structuralism is a way of thinking about the world which is predominantly concerned with the perceptions and description of structures. At its simplest, structuralism claims that the nature of every element in any given situation has no significance by itself, and in fact is determined by all the other elements involved in that situation.
The full significance of any entity cannot be perceived unless and until it is integrated into the structure of which it forms a part Hawkes, p.
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Structuralists believe that all human activity is constructed, not natural or "essential. Semiology Semiotics, simply put, is the science of signs. Semiology proposes that a great diversity of our human action and productions--our bodily postures and gestures, the the social rituals we perform, the clothes we wear, the meals we serve, the buildings we inhabit--all convey "shared" meanings to members of a particular culture, and so can be analyzed as signs which function in diverse kinds of signifying systems.
Linguistics the study of verbal signs and structures is only one branch of semiotics but supplies the basic methods and terms which are used in the study of all other social sign systems Abrams, p. Binary Opposition - "pairs of mutually-exclusive signifiers in a paradigm set representing categories which are logically opposed and which together define a complete universe of discourse relevant ontological domaine.
In such oppositions each term necessarily implies its opposite and there is no middle term" Daniel Chandler. Symbol - According to Saussure, "words are not symbols which correspond to referents, but rather are 'signs' which are made up of two parts like two sides of a sheet of paper: The distinction is important because Saussure contended that the relationship between signifier and signified is arbitrary; the only way we can distinguish meaning is by difference one sign or word differs from another.
Instead, meaning--the interpretation of a sign--can exist only in relationship with other signs. Selden and Widdowson use the sign system of traffic lights as an example. The color red, in that system, signifies "stop," even though "there is no natural bond between red and stop" Meaning is derived entirely through difference, "a system of opposites and contrasts," e.
Structuralist narratology - "a form of structuralism espoused by Vladimir Propp, Tzvetan Todorov, Roland Barthes, and Gerard Genette that illustrates how a story's meaning develops from its overall structure its langue rather than from each individual story's isolated theme.
To ascertain a text's meaning, narratologists emphasize grammatical elements such as verb tenses and the relationships and configurations of figures of speech within the story" Bressler - see General Resources below. Northwestern UP, Hill and Wang, The Pleasure of the Text.
Structuralism, Linguistics, and the Study of Literature. U of California P, Jefferson, Anne and David Robey. Revolution in Poetic Language and Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art.
After the New Criticism. The Raw and the Cooked. John and Doreen Weighman. Semiotics of Poetry Peirce, Charles.
Values in a Universe of Chance: Selected Writings of Charles S. The Morphology of the Folktale.
U of Texas P, Course in General Linguistics. The Subject of Semiotics.
A Survey of Semiotics. A Structural Approach to a Literary Genre.A gay bar is a drinking establishment that caters to an exclusively or predominantly lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender clientele; the term gay is used as a broadly inclusive concept for LGBT and queer communities..
Gay bars once served as the centre of gay culture and were one of the few places people with same-sex orientations and gender-variant identities could openly socialize.
The Center for LGBTQ Studies (CLAGS) was founded in as the first university-based research center in the United States dedicated to the study of historical, cultural, and political issues of vital concern to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer individuals and communities.
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Studies (LGBTS) at Yale promotes innovative interdisciplinary scholarship and teaching on the historical and contemporary experience of lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, and transgender people.
This site is part of the CUNY Academic Commons, an academic social network for the entire campus CUNY system.. Unless otherwise stated, all content on the CUNY Academic Commons is licensed under a Creative Commons license. In his later years, Brakhage would often hand paint strips of his films at a local coffee shop in Boulder—an early adopter of the remote office.
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