It is about the size of a small grapefruit, is shaped like a walnut, and can fit in the palm of your hand. Cradled in the skull and surrounded by protective membranes, it is poised at the top of the spinal column.
S-1 Thinking Independently Principle: Critical thinking is independent thinking, thinking for oneself. Many of our beliefs are acquired at an early age, when we have a strong tendency to form beliefs for irrational reasons because we want to believe, because we are praised or rewarded for believing.
Critical thinkers use critical skills and insights to reveal and reject beliefs that are irrational. In forming new beliefs, critical thinkers do not passively accept the beliefs of others; rather, they try to figure things out for themselves, reject unjustified authorities, and recognize the contributions of genuine authorities.
They thoughtfully form principles of thought and action; they do not mindlessly accept those presented to them. Nor are they unduly influenced by the language of another. If they find that a set of categories or distinctions is more appropriate than that used by another, they will use it.
Recognizing that categories serve human purposes, they use those categories which best serve their purpose at the time. They are not limited by accepted ways of doing things.
They evaluate both goals and how to achieve them. They do not accept as true, or reject as false, beliefs they do not understand.
They are not easily manipulated. Independent thinkers strive to incorporate all known relevant knowledge and insight into their thought and behavior. They strive to determine for themselves when information is relevant, when to apply a concept, or when to make use of a skill.
Egocentricity means confusing what we see and think with reality. When under the influence of egocentricity, we think that the way we see things is exactly the way things are.
The egocentric individual is more concerned with the appearance of truth, fairness, and fairmindedness, than with actually being correct, fair, or fairminded.
Egocentricity is the opposite of critical thought. It is common in adults as well as in children. As people are socialized, egocentricity partly evolves into sociocentricity. Egocentric tendencies extend to their groups.
The individual goes from "I am right! One can see this in both children and adults: My daddy is better than your daddy! My school religion, country, race, etc.
Uncritical thinkers often confuse loyalty with always supporting and agreeing, even when the other person or the group is wrong. If egocentricity and sociocentricity are the disease, self-awareness is the cure.
We need to become aware of our own tendency to confuse our view with "The Truth". People can often recognize when someone else is egocentric.
Most of us can identify the sociocentricity of members of opposing groups. Yet when we ourselves are thinking egocentrically or sociocentrically, it seems right to us at least at the time.
Our belief in our own rightness is easier to maintain because we ignore the faults in our thinking. We automatically hide our egocentricity from ourselves.
We fail to notice when our behavior contradicts our self-image. We base our reasoning on false assumptions we are unaware of making.
We fail to make relevant distinctions of which we are otherwise aware and able to make when making them prevents us from getting what we want.
We deny or conveniently "forget" facts that do not support our conclusions. We often misunderstand or distort what others say. The solution, then, is to reflect on our reasoning and behavior; to make our beliefs explicit, critique them, and, when they are false, stop making them; to apply the same concepts in the same ways to ourselves and others; to consider every relevant fact, and to make our conclusions consistent with the evidence; and to listen carefully and openmindedly to others.
We can change egocentric tendencies when we see them for what they are: This development will be modest at first but can grow considerably over time. S-3 Exercising Fairmindedness Principle:Instructional Strategies A concept is defined by Lynn Erickson as "a mental construct that is timeless, universal and abstract.” Concepts, such as intertextuality, ecosystems, prime numbers, and culture, are rich ideas to which facts and examples are attached.
S-1 Thinking Independently. Principle: Critical thinking is independent thinking, thinking for oneself. Many of our beliefs are acquired at an early age, when we have a strong tendency to form beliefs for irrational reasons (because we want to believe, because we are praised or rewarded for believing).
Patricia Schmehl, MSN, RN, ACNP-Faculty, Reading Area Community College, Reading, Pennsylvania. Patricia Schmehl has extensive experience in critical care nursing, agency nursing, the medical-surgical, post-partum, and operating room nursing settings, and the non-acute setting as a phlebotomist for Keystone Community Blood Bank.
How to Start a Compare and Contrast Essay.
Compare and contrast essays are often assigned to students because they promote critical thinking, analytical reasoning and organized writing. A compare and contrast essay should look at a subject.
This article explains (a) how to teach students to identify the compare-contrast text structure, and to use this structure to support their comprehension, (b) how to use compare-contrast texts to activate and extend students' background knowledge, and (c) how to use compare-contrast texts to help students expand and enrich their vocabulary.
This article is about enhancing critical thinking as a crucial aspect of the competence citizens need to participate in society.
First empirical research into the question which instructional strategies are ‘effective’ in enhancing critical thinking is reviewed.