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Non-pure abjads such as Hebrew and Arabic script and abugidas use diacritics for denoting vowels. Hebrew and Arabic also indicate consonant doubling and change with diacritics; Hebrew and Devanagari use them for foreign sounds.
Devanagari and related abugidas also use a diacritical mark called a virama to mark the absence of a vowel. Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics use several types of diacritics, including the diacritics with alphabetic properties known as Medials and Finals.
Although long vowels originally were indicated with a negative line through the Syllabic glyphs, making the glyph appear broken, in the modern forms, a dot above is used to indicate vowel length. In some of the styles, a ring above indicates a long vowel with a [j] off-glide.
Medials such as the "w-dot" placed next to the Syllabics glyph indicates a [w] being placed between the syllable onset consonant and the nucleus vowel. Finals indicate the syllable coda consonant; some of the syllable coda consonants in word medial positions, such as with the "h-tick", indicate the fortification of the consonant in the syllable following it.
Emoticons are commonly created with diacritic symbols, especially Japanese emoticons on popular imageboards. Alphabetization or collation[ edit ] Main article: Collation Different languages use different rules to put diacritic characters in alphabetical order.
French treats letters with diacritical marks the same as the underlying letter for purposes of ordering and dictionaries.
Languages that treat accented letters as variants of the underlying letter usually alphabetize words with such symbols immediately after similar unmarked words.
For instance, in German where two words differ only by an umlaut, the word without it is sorted first in German dictionaries e.
However, when names are concerned e. For a comprehensive list of the collating orders in various languages, see Collating sequence. Generation with computers[ edit ] Modern computer technology was developed mostly in English-speaking countries, so data formats, keyboard layouts, etc.
This has led some to theorize that the marks and accents may be made obsolete to facilitate the worldwide exchange of data. Depending on the keyboard layoutwhich differs amongst countries, it is more or less easy to enter letters with diacritics on computers and typewriters.
Some have their own keys; some are created by first pressing the key with the diacritic mark followed by the letter to place it on. Such a key is sometimes referred to as a dead keyas it produces no output of its own but modifies the output of the key pressed after it.
On Apple Macintosh computers, there are keyboard shortcuts for the most common diacritics; Option-e followed by a vowel places an acute accent, Option-u followed by a vowel gives an umlaut, option-c gives a cedilla, etc. Diacritics can be composed in most X Window System keyboard layouts, as well as other operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows, using additional software.
On computers, the availability of code pages determines whether one can use certain diacritics. Unicode solves this problem by assigning every known character its own code; if this code is known, most modern computer systems provide a method to input it.
With Unicode, it is also possible to combine diacritical marks with most characters. Languages with letters containing diacritics[ edit ] The following languages have letters that contain diacritics that are considered independent letters distinct from those without diacritics.
Baltic Latvian has the following letters:John Slaughter, former president of Occidental College and former head of the National Science Foundation Pete Souza, chief White House photographer Warren Staley, chairman and chief executive officer, Cargill Inc., the largest privately owned corporation in the U.S.
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