Schubert died before his 32nd birthday, but was prolific during his lifetime. His output consists of six hundred secular vocal works, seven complete symphonies, sacred music, operas, incidental music.
Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi was an Italian composer who, in addition to being the first great operatic writer, reflected in his works, especially the madrigals, the change in style from late Renaissance to early baroque.
Claudio Monteverdi was undoubtedly one of the more progressive composers between and During these years he infused the rather dry stile rappresentativo of the early monodists with a lyricism that foreshadowed the later aria, and he introduced a more intensely expressive and dramatic element into music, notably through what he called the stile concitato agitated style.
As early as Giovanni Maria Artusi, a well-known theorist, criticized Monteverdi for some harsh "modernisms. Today he is regarded less as a revolutionary than as one of the outstanding composers of all time, who combined the old with the new and who forged a style that for dramatic range, emotional expression, and sensuous lyricism had never been equaled before.
Monteverdi was born in Cremona and baptized on May 15, His mother, Maddalena, and father, Baldassare, a doctor, were probably musical, for both Claudio and his brother Giulio Cesare became professional musicians.
It is most likely that Monteverdi became a choirboy at the local Cathedral and received his first musical training there. He was certainly a pupil of the noted composer M. Perhaps in or the year after, he became a string player at the court of Vincenzo Gonzaga I, Duke of Mantua; he definitely held this position inthe same year that he published his third madrigal book.
Employment at the Court of Mantua Monteverdi remained at Mantua for about 20 years. Shortly before the second visit he married Claudia Cattaneo, who in their brief marriage she died in bore him three children, Francesco inLeonora inand Massimiliano in In Monteverdi was promoted to maestro della musica; he published his fourth madrigal book a year later, his fifth inand the first set of Scherzi musicali in This latter style Monteverdis lamento della ninfa compositional already apparent to some extent in a few of the pieces in the fourth madrigal book and more obviously so in the last six pieces of the fifth book, which, like the rest of his output in this genre, use a continuo accompaniment and are better described as vocal chamber music than as madrigals.
Orfeo is perhaps the most remarkable first essay in any musical genre by any composer. The libretto by Alessandro Striggio keeps to the original story more closely than the two earlier operas on the same subject by Jacopo Peri and Giulio Caccini and most later onesin that Orpheus loses Euridice on the journey back from Hades, though they are reunited in heaven.
The music represents a virtual cross section of contemporary practice, including choruses in imitative polyphony and chordal harmony, solo ensembles, da capo arias, dances and other independent instrumental pieces, and the new monodic recitativelike style, to which most of the text is set.
The orchestra consists of over 40 instruments, including harpsichords, chamber organs, strings, woodwind, and brass; which of these played when was largely left to the music director, though in certain instances Monteverdi specifies the instrumentation. For example, the spirits of Hades are accompanied by regal reed and positive organs, five trombones, two bass gambas, and a violone, which produce a strikingly dark timbre; trombones, indeed, later became traditionally associated with anything "infernal.
This is particularly evident in Act I, where the arrangement of solos, ensembles, choruses, and instrumental ritornelli form two ABA structures, the first large and complex, the second small and simple, and followed by a coda.
The Vespers In Monteverdi published one of his finest works, the Vespers, comprising a Mass, 2 Magnificats, 11 "motets," and an orchestral sonata. In it he combines solos, ensembles, choral writing for one and two choirs of up to five voices each, orchestral ritornelli some in six real partsin addition to a sonata, and obbligati for various instruments.
The style ranges from the old to the new, from richly imitative seven-part polyphony to highly affective monody, from rhythmically clear-cut, ear-catching melodies to complex highly virtuosic melismas.
As Denis Arnold said, "Passion and magnificence—these two are inseparable words when describing this volume. It almost certainly was a result of his wish to find another post, a wish that arose from the growing dissatisfaction with conditions, particularly his salary, at the Mantuan court.
For over a year Monteverdi sought employment that was commensurate with his now considerable reputation, and finally, in Augusthe was appointed to one of the most prestigious musical positions in Italy, that of maestro di cappella at the famous basilica of St.
Years in Venice Monteverdi spent the rest of his life in Venice, dying there on Nov. Musically his 30 years in the service of St. In addition to completely reorganizing the whole musical setup and raising to a new excellence the standards of the singers and instrumentalists, he composed a quantity of music, both sacred and secular.
Most of the sacred music was published in Selva morale e spiritualewhich includes a Mass, two Magnificats, and over 30 other pieces, and in a collection published posthumously inwhich contains a Mass, a litany, and over a dozen psalm settings.
The secular music can be divided into chamber and dramatic. The chamber category includes the sixth, seventh, and eighth madrigal books, and the second set of Scherzi musicali The dramatic category comprises nine operas, three ballets, incidental music, an intermezzo, a masque, and the dramatic cantata Il combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda Poppea is the first opera on a historical subject as opposed to mythological, biblical, or poetical subjects and a masterpiece by any standard.
Both were first produced in Venice, but Ulisse is more typically Venetian than Poppea in the rapid succession of scenes—comic, serious, and spectacular—the quick patter of its recitative, often broken up by short songlike passages, the infrequency of instrumental numbers, the varied and heightened emotional range, and the reduction of the orchestra to a basic string group, which was first used in Il combattimento and has formed the foundation of the orchestra ever since.
In Poppea Monteverdi largely rejected the purely spectacular and the restless succession of scenic contrasts, relying more on the vivid and subtle characterization of the leading figures of the drama and maintaining a well-nigh perfect balance between music and drama, the music seeming to spring directly from the drama and not, as happened in most later baroque operas, being an end in itself.
Not until Christoph Willibald Gluck, in fact, was such a conception of opera again realized. The music in Poppea is seldom less than attractive, and at times it reaches an emotional intensity and a melodic beauty that make an immediate impact today.
His Life and Work trans. Creator of Modern Music ; Hans F. Life and Works trans. For background material see Donald J. Grout, A Short History of Opera ; 2d ed. Worsthorne, Venetian Opera in the Seventeenth Century Cambridge University Press, Tuning Messages - Download as Text File .txt), PDF File .pdf) or read online.
Monteverdi's infinite variety. also enforced by raising the orchestra pit so that the Monteverdi’s setting of the same text as the ‘Lamento singers and dancers can interact with the instrumental- della Ninfa’. The disc is lent variety through some instru- ists. Italian composer. Leading composer of the late Renaissance and Early Baroque, and the first great composer of operas.
Although Monteverdi can be viewed as both a composer of the Renaissance and of the Baroque, there is a continuity that runs through his works in both styles. Claudio Monteverdi’s Il ritorno d’Ulisse in patria () constitutes a unique source for understanding Venetian norms concerning the nature of marriage, love, and the emergence of public opera as a popular form of entertainment in 17th-century.
Find Claudio Monteverdi composition information on AllMusic. Find Claudio Monteverdi composition information on AllMusic AllMusic.
New Releases. Featured New Releases; Editors' Choice; All New Releases; Discover Lamento Della Ninfa, madrigal in 3 sections for .
Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi. Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi () was an Italian composer who, in addition to being the first great operatic writer, reflected in his works, especially the madrigals, the change in style from late Renaissance to early baroque.