Excerpt from Research Paper: China's One Child Policy Historically, it is noted that Mao Zedong, once a China president encouraged population growth which saw the population of China almost double during that period of his leadership. This led to overpopulation and the stretching of the social amenities and most importantly the economy. In order to address this challenge, the one -- child policy was introduced in China.
Originally instituted to curb the population growth China experienced during the second half of the 20th century, the Policy was controversial from the start. Today across the globe, there are divergent views of where the Policy is at now and what shape the future of the Policy, and China as a result of the Policy will take.
This paper examines the various issues involving China's One-Child Policy today and moving ahead in the 21st century.
History of the Policy The People's Republic of China experienced a massive population One child policy china research paper in the late s and s. The reasons for this are believed to be improved sanitation and medicationthe banning of imported birth control and an era of peace and stability after decades of war, disease and civil unrest.
At first, the Chinese government welcomed the surge. The extra bodies, it was held would only increase national productivity and if more food or supplies were needed, the bigger population could produce as much as what was needed.
This proved to be overly optimistic however. As early asfood supplies were dwindling and the country was unprepared when widespread famine hit in As a result of the famine, 30 million people died.
The famine occurred because the extra mouths to feed coincided with a movement, led by the government, to convert manpower towards industry and away from agriculture. As a result, the population growth exceeded the food supply. This era saw the first of the government's modern attempts to promote birth control.
For the next decade, an informal campaign to slow the growth rate succeeded, but not to the degree the government felt necessary to solve the problem.
Finally, inChinese officials approved a policy limiting the Han peoples China's ethnic majority to having only one child. Present Effects and Impact of the Policy Current Enforcement There are some signs which suggest that the Policy might be coming to an end in the near future.
According to the available public figures, a little more than one-third of the country's population was still subject to the law in However, it is also believed that even fewer adhere to the One-Child rule.
There is a litany of exceptions which presently apply and allow families to have more than one child. These exceptions often apply in rural families the rule is generally enforced in Beijing more strictly than elsewhere in Chinato ethnic minorities, and families "where both parents are themselves only children," and many other cases.
Punishment for violations of the Policy, where it is enforced, also vary greatly. Violation of the One-Child Policy in Beijing usually results only in a fine or a loss of public benefits to the offenders. Therefore, there is no criminal punishment or oppressive economic sanction for the having a second child, another sign that the era of the One-Child policy might be ending.
Some Chinese nationals report that the second child in Beijing only costs the parents a small fee to obtain state 'registration papers' and that travelling to Hong Kong to give birth eliminates even the need for that. One of the heavily populated southern provinces imposes much stiffer fines, as much as six times the annual income of the offending parents.
The penalties are not regularly enforced, however, and many high-income families merely elect to pay fines when deciding to have a second or third child. Despite the lack of stiff and regularly enforced punishments, Chinese officials are sure to remind all Chinese nationals that the One-Child policy is still the official policy of China.
Drawbacks and Criticisms The Policy has had the much unwanted effect of creating a large disparity between male and female births. This has happened for several reasons. First, the male child has long been more coveted than the female child in China.
The male child is one that can be the productive worker and can better support the parents during their old age. AfterChinese families began using ultrasound tests and abortions, which were more readily available than ever before to control the sex of their baby.
China tried to eradicate this problem by banning prenatal sex screening in Still, as ofthe British Medical Journal determined that China still counted 32 million more boys than girls under the age of Also these young people do not have the skills to work in the factories, causing a labor shortage in the factories.
Female infants and fetuses have suffered atrocities since the Policy was implemented. Mosher also links the growing disparity of the young men to women to the rise in China's sex trade.
Many human rights activists and organizations have taken China to task for its government sanctioned actions in support of the Policy. Chinese officials stand accused of a long list of crimes against humanity on way they have allegedly treated women who have violated the Policy.
According to one international human rights organization, just a this month AprilChinese officials have launched a campaign to perform forced sterilizations on nearly 10, people in southern China, after last year's alleged campaign to perform forced abortions on those mothers who would not consent to.
The activist group, Women's Rights Without Frontiers, handed down a scathing indictment of the Chinese government last week after it learned of the alleged forced sterilization campaign.On a Saturday afternoon at The Bund, Xiao Ming (or “Little Ming”) clings tightly onto the hands of his paternal grandparents.
His maternal grandparents walk slightly ahead, clearing a path for him in the midst of all the buzz and traffic. Children and Gender Inequality: Evidence from Denmark Henrik Kleven, Camille Landais, Jakob Egholt Søgaard.
NBER Working Paper No. Issued in January NBER Program(s):Children, Labor Studies, Public Economics Despite considerable gender convergence over time, substantial gender inequality persists in all countries. Human Rights Violations of China's One Child Policy - Abstract The purpose of this research is to highlight to what extent government policy has violated the human rights of women in China.
How to write body paragraphs for a research paper on one-child policy The body paragraphs contain the supporting ideas which should be included in the initial outline. Ideas, data, or any other information should be elaborated in this part of the paper.
China’s One Child Policy; Impacts on the Society, the Economy, and the People. By David Goheen Due: December 14, Executive Summary During the years before the implementation of the One Child Policy, the leaders of China were involved in wars, a .
"Children with working mothers and absent fathers are more likely to be subject to neglect and abuse." Using state-level data on the number of reports and substantiated cases of child maltreatment, Paxson and Waldfogel find more broadly that the socioeconomic status of families does affect levels of.