Advanced Search Abstract Background. Our aim was to compare the attitudes and behaviour of smokers attending their GP with symptoms that they believe are smoking related with those who do not.
A cross-sectional, pre-consultation survey of patients attending GPs in Leicester, UK was carried out. A total of Multiple logistic regression showed that where smokers perceived that their problems were smoking related they were more likely to have tried stopping in the past [odds ratio OR 1.
Comparison of the smoking behaviour and attitudes of smokers who believe they have smoking-related problems with those who do not. Family Practice ; Introduction Smoking remains a huge public health problem and a great cause of morbidity and mortality.
The evidence to support this is conflicting, however. For example, many smokers do not believe that their smoking puts them at any higher risk of myocardial infarction or cancer than other people.
A study of older smokers found that those who attributed symptoms to smoking rather than ageing were more motivated to try stopping 8 and, amongst smokers with established respiratory symptoms, those who attributed these to smoking were also more motivated. To investigate this issue further, we compared the beliefs and attitudes of smokers attending routine general practice consultations who believed they had smoking-related problems with those who did not.
Method Data used in this analysis were collected as part of a study which has been reported elsewhere. The Heaviness of Smoking Index, a biologically validated measure of nicotine addiction, 12 quantified current smoking habit, and smokers also indicated whether or not they had attempted to quit smoking in the past year.
Finally, respondents were also asked to indicate which of five statements relating to thinking about or trying to stop smoking that they most strongly agreed with.
This latter item was derived from an American questionnaire item 13 and aimed to measure low levels of readiness to stop smoking. All items had been piloted and used in previous studies. We compared demographic details, attitudes towards smoking, and past and present smoking behaviour between smokers who were patients i.
Next we used forward, logistic regression with SPSS version 10 to determine the characteristics of smokers who were patients i. Smokers who were not patients were not included in this analysis, as they had no medical problems on which they could give an opinion.
Results A total of patients attended surgery sessions, 16 were excluded, 97 refused to participate, were missed by the researcher and Of the smokers, Perceiving that their presenting problems were smoking related was not associated with gender: Table 1 compares the remaining characteristics of smokers who believed they had smoking-related problems with those who did not, and Table 2 reports findings of the multiple logistic regression.
On univariate analysis, smokers who believed their problems were smoking related were significantly more likely to report a quit attempt in the last year, to intend to quit in the next 4 weeks, to desire to quit and to have thought about quitting smoking.
After multivariate analysis, having tried to stop smoking in the past year, intending to try stopping in the next 4 weeks and desiring to stop smoking were all independently associated with believing problems to be smoking related.
|Introduction||In bringing him up, she subjected Watson to harsh religious training that later led him to develop a lifelong antipathy toward all forms of religion and to become an atheist. Watson understood that college was important to his success as an individual:|
|Behaviorism | Psychology Today||Eating disorders Substance abuse CBT is a goal-directed and problem-focused form of therapy, with participants focused on learning rational thinking and self-counseling skills. You and your therapist will work together to determine when you have successfully completed the goals of your therapy.|
|The Psychology of Smoking Why did you start smoking? Every pack of cigarettes has a warning from the Surgeon General stating that smoking can be harmful to your health.|
|Habit Formation | Psychology Today||Eating disorders Substance abuse CBT is a goal-directed and problem-focused form of therapy, with participants focused on learning rational thinking and self-counseling skills. You and your therapist will work together to determine when you have successfully completed the goals of your therapy.|
|The Psychology of Smoking - Tobacco Addiction||Selected References These references are in PubMed.|
Discussion This study found that patients who attend their GP with problems that they believe are smoking related are more likely to have tried stopping in the past and want to or intend to do so in the future.
Previous studies have shown that past quit attempts 14— 16 and an intention 14, 15, 17 or desire 15, 18 to quit in the near future are associated with making quit attempts and achieving future smoking cessation, so smokers who believe their problems are smoking related might also be more likely to stop smoking in the future than others.
By employing research assistants to distribute questionnaires, we ensured a high response rate, and by including standard questionnaire items that had been used in previous research studies, we ensured low rates of missing data.
Additionally, any correlation between explanatory variables in the multivariate analysis will have been taken into account by the stepwise approach to the logistic regression. Therefore, it is worth considering the meaning of our results. We have conducted a cross-sectional survey rather than a longitudinal, cohort study.
Consequently, we cannot tell whether: There is evidence to support both of these possibilities.
If one accepts the first explanation, then other factors that we have not measured and are associated with motivation may have influenced smokers, resulting in them overcoming any self-exempting beliefs 4, 5 and accepting that smoking actually does cause them problems.
In this study, self-efficacy was not formally measured because only limited time was available for subjects to complete pre-consultation questionnaires before seeing physicians. Although confidence in stopping smoking is a related concept to self-efficacy, confidence was not associated with believing symptoms or problems to be smoking related.
This suggests, therefore, that the apparently higher motivation of smokers who believed their symptoms to be smoking related would not be explained by them having greater self-efficacy.
Further studies investigating the link between the health beliefs and motivation in primary care should consider measuring self-efficacy more formally. Evidence for the second hypothesis ii above was first provided by a large, longitudinal population survey which investigated the link between health beliefs and motivation to stop smoking.
The findings of the current study help to contextualize this work 15 and also the findings of other studies which have demonstrated that substantial smoking-related morbidity 7 or a belief that respiratory symptoms measured by a standard postal questionnaire are caused by smoking 9 are both associated with motivation to stop.Psychological perspectives of smoking This essay will consider how each of the 5 psychological perspectives explain smoking.
I will cover the psychodynamic, the behaviouristic, the biological, the cognitive and the humanistic approach. The reasons for smoking are mostly psychological, but nicotine addiction makes it hard to quit smoking once you have developed the habit.
Behavioral health populations consume 40% of all cigarettes sold in this country Mental Health and Tobacco. Persons with mental illness smoke nearly half of all cigarettes produced, but they are only half as likely to quit as other smokers.
Behavioral Mechanisms Underlying the Link Between Smoking and Drinking Hilary J. Little, Ph.D.
Many people use both alcohol and nicotine (i.e., cigarettes and other tobacco products). Habit formation is the process by which new behaviors become automatic.
Cognitive behavior therapy can help you deal with stress, which can make it easier for you to quit smoking. How Cognitive Behavior Therapy Can Help You Quit Smoking | . The reasons for smoking are mostly psychological, but nicotine addiction makes it hard to quit smoking once you have developed the habit. Cognitive behavior therapy can help you deal with stress, which can make it easier for you to quit smoking.
If you instinctively reach for a cigarette the moment you wake up in the morning, you have a habit. By the same token, if. Behaviorism is a worldview that assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli.
The learner starts off as a clean slate (i.e. tabula rasa) and behavior is shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement .