Signs and symptoms of Ebola  Onset The length of time between exposure to the virus and the development of symptoms incubation period is between 2 and 21 days,   and usually between 4 and 10 days.
The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. The — outbreak in West Africa involved major urban areas as well as rural ones.
Community engagement is key to successfully controlling outbreaks. Good outbreak control relies on applying a package of interventions, namely case management, infection prevention and control practices, surveillance and contact tracing, a good laboratory service, safe and dignified burials and social mobilisation.
Early supportive care with rehydration, symptomatic treatment improves survival. There is as yet no licensed treatment proven to neutralize the virus but a range of blood, immunological and drug therapies are under development.
Background The Ebola virus causes an acute, serious illness which is often fatal if untreated. The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name. The — outbreak in West Africa was the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak since the virus was first discovered in There were more cases and deaths in this outbreak than all others combined.
It also spread between countries, starting in Guinea then moving across land borders to Sierra Leone and Liberia. The virus family Filoviridae includes three genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebolavirus.
Within the genus Ebolavirus, five species have been identified: The first three, Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Zaire ebolavirus, and Sudan ebolavirus have been associated with large outbreaks in Africa.
The virus causing the — West African outbreak belongs to the Zaire ebolavirus species. Transmission It is thought that fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are natural Ebola virus hosts.
Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines found ill or dead or in the rainforest.
Ebola then spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and with surfaces and materials e.
Health-care workers have frequently been infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed EVD. This has occurred through close contact with patients when infection control precautions are not strictly practiced.
Burial ceremonies that involve direct contact with the body of the deceased can also contribute in the transmission of Ebola. People remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus. Sexual transmission More surveillance data and research are needed on the risks of sexual transmission, and particularly on the prevalence of viable and transmissible virus in semen over time.
In the interim, and based on present evidence, WHO recommends that: All Ebola survivors and their sexual partners should receive counselling to ensure safe sexual practices until their semen has twice tested negative.
Survivors should be provided with condoms. Male Ebola survivors should be offered semen testing at 3 months after onset of disease, and then, for those who test positive, every month thereafter until their semen tests negative for virus twice by RT-PCR, with an interval of one week between tests.
Ebola survivors and their sexual partners should either: Having tested negative, survivors can safely resume normal sexual practices without fear of Ebola virus transmission.Acute infections caused by viruses such as Ebolavirus are characterized by rapid production of infectious virus particles, followed by resolution and elimination of infection by the host.
However, chronic symptoms may persist for a long time after the infection is cleared. Attenuated strains of HHS Select Agents and Toxins excluded from the requirements of 42 CFR part COXIELLA BURNETTI. Coxiella burnetii Phase II, Nine Mile Strain, plaque purified clone 4 (effective ) Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) phase variation is the only confirmed virulence factor of C.
Attenuated strains of HHS Select Agents and Toxins excluded from the requirements of 42 CFR part COXIELLA BURNETTI. Coxiella burnetii Phase II, Nine Mile Strain, plaque purified clone 4 (effective ) Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) phase variation is the .
The Ebola virus is the primary cause of Ebola. There are four identified subtypes, and all but one are known to have caused disease in humans. There are no other known causes. Human-to-human transmission of the virus occurs through direct contact with infected people, or their body fluids (such as blood or secretions).
The accelerating ebola epidemic in West Africa, which the World Health Organization (WHO) has called “unprecedented,” has so far killed more than half the 3, people who contracted the disease in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea and Nigeria.
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